Today, 4pixos will continue to go through some of the rules of landscape design. In addition to software skills (Itoo Forest, Chaos Scatter, etc.), understanding some landscape design principles will help oneself to better understand and build a stronger knowledge base before embarking on the execution in 3Ds Max. Since the amount of knowledge is extensive, 4pixos will divide it into several smaller lessons, focusing on the key concise content for everyone’s convenience to follow along.

1. Rule of line

Perhaps the most common element in a composition is line. Line creates all forms and patterns and can be used in a variety of ways in the landscape.

Lines are a powerful tool for the designer because they can be used to create an infinite variety of shapes and forms, and they control movement of the eye and the body. Landscape designers use lines to create patterns, develop spaces, create forms, control movement, establish dominance, and create a cohesive theme in a landscape.

Landscape lines are created several ways: when two different materials meet on the ground plane, such as the edge of a brick patio meeting an expanse of green turf; or when the edge of an object is visible or contrasts with a background, such as the outline of a tree against the sky; or by the placement of a material in a line, such as a fence.

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There are three primary line types that create form in the landscape: bedlines, hardscape lines, and plant lines. Bedlines are created where the edge of the plant bed meets another surface material, such as turf, groundcover, gravel, or patio pavers. Bedlines connect plant material to the house and hardscape because the eye follows the line, moving the gaze through the landscape. Hardscape lines are created by the edge of the hardscape, which delineates the built structure.

2. Forms

Tree forms

Common tree forms (Figure 6) include round, columnar, oval, pyramidal, vase shaped, and weeping. Different tree forms are used for visual appeal, but the form is also important for function. Creating a shady area in the garden requires a round or oval tree, while a screen usually requires a more columnar or pyramidal form, and a weeping tree form makes a good focal point.

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Shrub forms

Shrub forms (Figure 7) include upright, vase shaped, arching, mounding, rounded, spiky, cascading, and irregular. Choosing shrub forms often depends on whether the shrub will be used in a mass or as a single specimen. Mounding and spreading shrubs look best in a mass, and cascading and vase-shaped shrubs do well as specimen plants.

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3. Color

Color is the most conspicuous element in the landscape and is usually the focus of most homeowners; however, it is also the most temporary element, usually lasting only a few weeks a year for individual plants. The use of color is guided by color theory (use of the color wheel) to create color schemes. A simple description of the color wheel includes the three primary colors of red, blue, and yellow; the three secondary colors (a mix of two primaries) of green, orange, and violet; and six tertiary colors (a mix of one adjacent primary and secondary color), such as red-orange. Color theory explains the relationship of colors to each other and how they should be used in a composition. The basic color schemes are monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.

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Monochromatic Scheme

A monochromatic color scheme uses only one color. In landscaping, this usually means one other color besides the green color in the foliage. A garden that is all green depends more on form and texture for contrast and interest. One color can have many light and dark variations, which can add interest.

Analogous cheme

Analogous (sometimes called harmonious) color schemes are any three to five colors that are adjacent on the color wheel, such as red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, and yellow, or blue, blue-violet, and violet. The colors are related to each other because they typically include two primary colors mixed to form a secondary and two tertiary colors, which means they share common properties.

Complementary Scheme

Complementary colors are those that are opposite each other on the color wheel. They tend to have high contrast between them. The most common sets are violet and yellow, red and green, and blue and orange. Complementary colors are often found naturally in flowers; a common pair is yellow and violet.

Color In Plants And Hardscape

Color is an important element for creating interest and variety in the landscape. Colors have properties that can affect emotions, spatial perception, light quality, balance, and emphasis. One property of color is described relative to temperature—colors appear to be cool or warm and can affect emotions or feelings. Cool colors tend to be calming and should be used in areas for relaxation and serenity. Warm colors tend to be more exciting and should be used in areas for entertaining and parties. The “temperature” of colors can also affect the perception of distance. Cool colors tend to recede and are perceived as being farther away, making a space feel larger. Warm colors tend to advance and are perceived as being closer, making a space feel smaller.

Color can also be used to capture attention and direct views. Focal points can be created with bright colors. For example, bright yellow, which has the highest intensity, also has a high contrast with all other colors (often described as a “pop” of color) and should be used sparingly. A small amount of intense color has as much visual weight as a large amount of a more subdued or weaker color. Color schemes in the garden can change with the seasons. Summer colors are usually more varied and bright with more flowers, while winter colors tend to be monochromatic and darker with more foliage. Color is also affected by light quality, which changes with the time of day and time of year. Brighter, more intense summer sun makes colors appear more saturated and intense, while the filtered light of winter makes colors appear more subdued. When choosing a color scheme, consideration should be given to the time of day the yard will be used. Because color is temporary, it should be used to highlight more enduring elements, such as texture and form. A color study (Figure 9) on a plan view is helpful for making color choices. Color schemes are drawn on the plan to show the amount and proposed location of various colors.

4pixos Academy • Trung tâm đào tạo Diễn họa kiến trúc quốc tế
4pixos Academy • Trung tâm đào tạo Diễn họa kiến trúc quốc tế
4pixos Academy • Trung tâm đào tạo Diễn họa kiến trúc quốc tế

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